How Carpet is Made

As a homeowner, it’s advantageous to know what your carpet is made of. By knowing the various materials used in making carpet, it can be easier for you to understand and evaluate their performance capacity: why some carpets are simpler to install; why others wear better; and why others are easier to clean. The extra knowledge also makes you wiser in choosing your preferred carpet.

Carpet Selections:

  • a thicker carpet doesn’t mean better
  • prefer tight twist in every yarn than loose and frayed
  • dense and firm pile means good quality
  • more backing seen means less durable and not compressed
  • areas that are high in traffic need lower profiles to prevent crushing and matting

Carpet Fiber

  • 90% is synthetic fiber
  • fundamental material of makeup
  • mostly wool, rest is natural fiber

Synthetic Fibers Carpet

  • composed of 1 of 3 materials: polypropylene, polyester, nylon
  • developed by chemical processes from natural gas and oil

Nylon Carpet

  • 75% is composed of nylon
  • excellent in performance
  • first-rate in: color and styling, appearance retention, and resistance in fade, heat, soil, and stain
  • for greater resistance against stain penetration, Type 6.6 nylon is the best

Polypropylene Carpet

  • in the late 1950’s, it was introduced in Italy
  • compared to nylon, it’s not as resilient
  • often utilized in loop pile constructions
  • naturally fade resistant and stain resistant
  • color options are limited in range
  • has natural resistance to moisture
  • BCF represents more than 35% of all fibers

Polyester Carpet

  • brought in the carpet industry during mid 1960’s
  • known for being stain and fade resistance and its bulkiness and color clarity
  • not as resilient compared to nylon
  • excellent in performance

PET Carpet

  • Mohawk creates from plastic bottles
  • over 3 billion bottles out of landfills are recycled
  • plastic is collected, classified by color, and then ground and melted
  • utilized to create the PET carpet fiber
  • carpets created by Mohawk out of PET staple fiber are made from 100% recycled materials
  • durable, resistant to stain, and has great color clarity

SmartStrand Carpet

  • manufactured with DuPont Sonora polymer
  • Mohawk and DuPont creates this fiber into carpet
  • SmartStrand with DuPont Sorona is non-stop filament fiber
  • eradicates shedding
  • extremely durable and stain resistant
  • 40% of the fiber is created from corn

Wool Carpet

  • The abovementioned three materials form most of synthetic fibers.
  • Being a natural fiber, wool varies in color from off-white to black, including numerous earthen tones between.
  • Staple fiber is the other type of fiber utilized in carpet construction
  • Although some synthetics are utilized in the production of staple fibers, it is wool which is considered as the original staple fiber used in processing carpet
  • New Zealand, Argentina, and the United Kingdom are today’s primary sources of wool.

Berber Carpet

  • Berber is a type of carpet construction
  • its name originates from a group of North African sheepherders known as the “Berbers”
  • Berbers create coarse wool, with color flecks in their yarns

The 3 phases of making carpet

1 – Tufting

  • starts with weaving the staple fiber or synthetic into a primary backing material
  • composed of woven polypropylene
  • the purpose is to provide a base cloth to hold the yarn while tufting
  • the machine used for tufting is 12 feet wide and has 800 to 2000 needles to pull the yarn through the main backing material
  • the needles penetrate the backing and a small hook (looper) grabs the yarn and stabilizes it.

Loop pile construction

  • yarn tips aren’t exposed
  • only the yarn’s sides exposed to stress and wear
  • excellent to hold up
  • holds appearance accurately

Alternative step

  • sometimes a cut pile occurs when the looper cuts small loops
  • pile height is the distance between the looper and primary backing
  • cuts are programmed by a computer to cut only some of the loops
  • this cutting is known cut and loop system and makes pattern on the surface

2 – Carpet Dyeing

Two dyeing processes

Yarn dyeing / pre-dyeing – color is put on the yarn before tufting.

  • uniformity
  • good side-by-side color consistency
  • huge lot sizes

Carpet dyeing – color is applied to the yarn after tufting.

  • greater color flexibility

Carpet dyeing methods

Beck / batch dyeing – the ends are stitched together, then running the carpet loop (tufted) through basins of water and dye for few hours.

  • good for small runs
  • more dense face weight products

Continuous dyeing (same with Beck dyeing) – carpet is run through various methods other than dying

  • color is printed or sprayed
  • patterned effects and multicolor looks available

Screen printing – color is used through anywhere from 1-8 silk-screens.

3 – Carpet Manufacturing

  • finishing process – single production line that ends the final stages of construction
    • coating of latex used to dyed carpet’s primary and secondary backing
    • secondary backing – composed of woven synthetic polypropylene
    • two parts are squeezed together in a large heated press and held firmly to sustain shape
  • shearing  –  eliminates loose ends and projects fibers made amidst the tufting process
  • also helps the yarn’s tip outline
  • inspection – for defects and color uniformity before being rolled, packaged, and delivered

Terms and construction variables

Pile height, or nap

  • check the tuft’s length by measuring the primary backing to the yarn tip
  • measurement should be in fraction or decimal form
  • note that shorter pile is more stronger and reliable than longer pile
  • don’t forget to measure stitch rate – the closeness of the yarns
  • stitch rate is measured in tufts, in a given length of carpet, usually an inch.
  • stitch rate is manipulated by the speed the carpet is moved inside the tufting machine
  • ideal number is 7 to 8 tufts per inch
  • don’t forget “face weight” or the amount of fiber per square yard, measured in ounces
  • typical carpet may have a face weight around 35 to 45 oz
  • check the density, or how the yarn is sewn into the primary backing
  • thicker wears better than low dense

carpet factory

carpet making machine

carpet manufacturer

how carpet is made making carpet